The relationship between bacteria and cancer is more and more investigated. Recent studies demonstrated the role of the gut microbiota in the response to anti-PD1/PDL1 immunotherapy for different tumors: melanoma, liver cancer, pancreas cancer and prostate cancer.

What is the current situation? What are the critical issues and the future prospects? We discuss it with Laurence Zitvogel, oncologist at the Institut Gustave Roussy, in Paris, and author of many publications in prestigious scientific journals.